Mistakes and blunders, you probably have heard about these words when watching some chess streamer or browsing through a forum in chess.com. These terms are constantly thrown around since they are so important in evaluation, believe it or not these are two different kinds of errors if we’re talking about chess.
There is also another one which is inconsistency, however, the most prominent between the three are mistakes and blunders which will be the focus of this article. If you are interested in learning the difference between the two you should keep on reading.
A blunder in chess is usually recognizable – a mistake is not
One of the key distinctions of a blunder (over a mistake) is it is something that would be easily recognized once it has occured on the board, the player can tell that it is obviously a blunder. The margin of error is so bad that it can only be a blunder and not a mistake.
This includes errors like hanging a piece, missing a mate in two, allowing a sacrifice, allowing a breakthrough, sacrificing for nothing, etc. that is normally preventable with proper play. A mistake on the other one is something that can even be witnessed at the elite level.
A blunder is basically an error so bad that most chess players anonymously consider it a blunder, mistakes on the other hand can be debatable and refuted at the eyes of an engine. In other words a blunder is a mistake that is much worse, something that completely throws the game.
A blunder is a simple failure to recognize something that would typically be obvious. On the other hand, a misjudgment or misapprehension of the position is referred to as a mistake.
Blunders are tactical in nature – mistakes are mostly strategic
There is a major difference between a tactic and a strategy in chess, basically if it involves a capture or an aggressive combination then it is a tactic, if it is more positional and quiet and then it is a strategy. Blunders are most likely moves that arose from a tactical shot and not a strategic one.
The majority of blunders are tactical in nature, this is because tactical success and failures usually convert into significant advantage for the rest of the game. Likewise when you are choosing the wrong plan, you will make a strategic error that will be considered a mistake and not a blunder.
Strategic moves after all are quiet and positional, if your opponent can take advantage of these errors the benefits that they can gain are likely to be not that much. This is why errors that involve a strategy and not a tactic (quiet and positional) are more likely to be a mistake than a blunder, these are errors that cannot clearly convert and require further play.
Identify if the move you are assessing is tactical or strategic in nature, it will help you determine which kind of error is it (blunder or a mistake?).
A mistake can be compensated while a blunder just loses the game
This is another important concept to consider when differentiating the two, a blunder is an error that is so devastating that it can single-handedly lose you the game. A mistake on the other hand can be compensated with enough correct moves for the remainder of the match.
A mistake is typically a minor error that can be corrected with careful play, it is not like a blunder. A blunder is a catastrophic miscalculation that effectively ends the game without much margin for reconciliation.
Things like hanging a piece, allowing a checkmate, getting your queen trapped, etc. are examples of errors that should convert to a winning game, these kinds of things are considered a blunder. You could see why this is the case, it is an error so bad that it just loses the game.
Mistakes on the other hand can be redeemed if you play good enough, blunders cannot be compensated even if you play correctly for the rest of the game. The only way a blundered game can have a chance of winning is if the opponent made a blunder themselves, this cancels the error and could probably change the result.
The definition of blunder and mistake can change depending on the rating
This is something that you need to remember in chess, a mistake for a beginner level player will not necessarily be a mistake for someone who is higher rated. Both players may have committed the same error visually, but their league is so different that the expectations for them are not the same.
A blunder is defined differently depending on a player’s level; a blunder for a 2000-rated player may not be a blunder for a 1000-rated player. In this category mistakes will also fall as well, a mistake for a higher rated player may not be a mistake for a lower rated one.
A “mistake” for a super grandmaster may actually be a decent move for a 1500 elo level type of player, this is because such moves in the elite level are so advanced that their mistakes can be pretty advanced as well. On the other hand, a blunder for a super-grandmaster may only be considered a mistake for a lower rated player.
Blunders loses games, mistakes don’t necessarily have to lose the game
The thing with mistakes is that they are usually unavoidable, only few players in the world are able to play without any mistake in three consecutive games. Even the pinnacle of chess will commit a mistake or two in their games (there are few exceptions).
A blunder at the elite level on the other hand is actually quite rare, this is because many of the professionals play positional moves that don’t give too much vulnerability. This is something that you should remember, mistakes don’t necessarily lose the game and blunders are just so bad that it completely throws it.
A blunder usually costs the player who made it in the game (though not always); on the other hand, a mistake may not cost you the game but considerably increases your chances of losing it.
Vagueness on the definition of blunder and mistake in chess
The thing with differentiation is it can be pretty vague, a mistake can sometimes be considered a blunder due to some factors that are present in the game. This is also true the other way around, it can be pretty subjective sometimes (until it gets analyzed by the engine).
Mistakes result in the loss of material or position; yet, there are times when a mistake might be considered a blunder. This can bring you from a winning position to a drawn one, or from drawn position to a loss.
A blunder is when you make a game-ending mistake that causes you to lose a large quantity of material or causes your position to be harmed for the rest of the game. This normally puts you in a disadvantageous position, or it can even determine the game’s outcome.
A mistake can be considered a blunder due to some factors (match history, tournament standing, choice of openings, rating level, etc.) there is no clear solution for the definition. However for practicality you should just consider how it impacts the game, if it is too much then it is likely to be a blunder (if not, it is a mistake).
A mistake is a misevaluation while a blunder is an omission
This is an interesting concept that I have thought about recently. If you want to differentiate a blunder from a mistake, determine if the error is a misevaluation (miscalculating something) or an omission (overlooking something). If it is a misevaluation it is a mistake, if it is an omission then it is a blunder.
A mistake occurs when you underestimate a problem that needs to be addressed; for example, imagine seeing water in the pool and jumping off the diving board only to discover the water isn’t deep enough to keep you safe. It will still hurt, but will probably be minor injuries at best.
A blunder is defined as an omission, or a full disregard for the threat that was supposed to be addressed. Continuing with the comparison, it’s like jumping off a diving board only to discover there’s no water underneath; this is a catastrophic error that will leave someone critically injured, a big difference.
Mistakes in chess are reversible – blunders are usually not
The thing with blunders is they are usually not tenable even for lower rated players, there are situations where both players blundered so much that it doesn’t even matter, but this is rare. Usually a blunder is just so terrible that the game could still be won with subpar play.
Mistakes are partly reversible and have a little potential of going unnoticed, but they are nevertheless detrimental. In chess, blunders stand out like a drop of water in the desert, punching the evaluation bar so hard that it changes color.
Mistakes on the other hand can be compensated if the opponent does not fully take advantage, taking advantage of a mistake also requires an improved sense of chess skill. It is not something a beginner can perform effectively, so if you have committed a mistake it is usually just fine.
Mistakes in chess gives advantages – blunders give games
I think the intensity of an error is really the primary way to tell the difference between a blunder and mistake, if a move is the so horrible that it will most likely cause a losing game that it is a blunder. If a move only give advantages then it is likely to be a mistake (or an inconsistency, but likely a mistake).
A mistake is an error that puts you at a disadvantage or a wasted chance that does not necessarily result in you losing the game. It is quite normal to perform multiple mistakes in a single game, players just usually focus on how they can make up on the mistakes (or the inconsistency).
A blunder on the other hand causes you to lose the game provided your opponent doesn’t blunder as much or makes too many mistakes, this is also the case when a player misses a game-winning move. Especially if it is an obvious tactic (like a mate in two) it will also be considered a blunder.
Wasted opportunities can also be considered a mistake, but if the error is such an obvious one and could’ve won the game instantly then it can be categorized as a blunder.
A mistake is a blunder that didn’t lose the game – it is slightly better
Some people think that there is a major difference between a mistake and a blunder, that you can absolutely tell the difference between the two. However there is no clear-cut answer to this and it can be vague sometimes.
A mistake is essentially a minor blunder, an error nonetheless, but not as serious as a genuine blunder. A series of mistakes, on the other hand, is almost as awful as an actual blunder since the error could pile up and actually give enough advantage for conversion.
Even though an error could individually be considered a mistake, it could also be categorized as a blunder if performed in multiple successions. This is because multiple mistakes will give enough edge that an opponent could have gained from one blunder, it is basically the same.
Making the differentiation between a blunder and a mistake can be hard sometimes, there are many occasions where you can recognize the one over the other (especially if you are just starting in your journey). It is important to categorize the two in order to know your current level.
I would say though that you should not overthink about this and by reading this article you are probably just fine, the ability to differentiate between the two will come naturally as you get better at chess. That is all, thank you for reading the article.